Potential mechanisms for enhanced liver steatosis were demonstrated in earlier studies. Deborah A. Ann Rev Biochem The available evidences show that bacterial proliferation and increased intestinal permeability contribute to the development of NAFLD through hepatotoxic bioproducts, modulation of bile acid metabolism, and chronic metabolic endotoxemia with involvement of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, CD14, TLR4 and Kuppfer cell-dependent mechanisms.
Thus, further studies including larger and well-characterized cohorts are required to better identify the associations between gut microbiota and the various liver phenotypes observed in NAFLD.
Schroder K, Tschopp J. Fecal microbiome and volatile organic compound metabolome in obese humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
In summary, NAFLD is an extremely common, complex disease that results from interactions between susceptible polygenic backgrounds and environmental factors. The host obtains vitamin K, benefits from the preservation and repair of the intestinal wall by the resident microbes, and gains carbon and energy that would otherwise not be available [ 13 ].
The prevalence of childhood obesity and associated metabolic disorders has been increasing in Korea [ 56 ]. Thanks to these recent technological advances, knowledge about the role of gut microbiota disruption dysbiosis in gut diseases such as colon cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, and irritable bowel syndrome has greatly increased, with possible new therapeutic strategies.
Wild-type mice that were cohoused with inflammasome-deficient mice also exhibited worsened NASH. Characterization of gut microbiomes in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis NASH patients: Microbiota fatty liver obesitas journal Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol.
Genome-wide association study identifies variants associated with histologic features of nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease. J Clin Invest 5: In conventionalized mice fed a high-fat, high sugar western diet, the gut microbiota suppressed AMPK activity in the gastrocnemius muscle and the liver [ 28 ].
January 27, Copyright: Nature Animal studies suggest that the gut microbiota can initiate hepatic steatosis through an increase in monosaccharide absorption [ 27 ], bacterial hepatotoxic bioproducts [ 38 ], chronic low-grade metabolic inflammatory reactions [ 3439 ], and modulation of bile acid metabolism [ 40 ].
Expert Opin Ther Targets. How does the gut microbiota affect obesity? HFD-fed mice developed more hepatocellular carcinoma, and intestinal decontamination with antibiotics reduced liver cancer formation. Intestinal microbiota, Dysbiosis, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Obesity Core tip: Br J Nutr.
Zhu et al. Obesity 26 2: Most have shown diverse changes in gut microbial composition with obesity, including a high ratio of Firmucutes to Bacteroidetes, known as an obese microbiota, which increases along with body weight or obesity. Turnbaugh et al.
The authors received no specific funding for this work. Obes Surg 24 1: For example, although total cecal SCFA concentrations of recipient mice given flora from responder versus nonresponder mice were similar in the Leroy study, two branched-chain fatty acids isobutyrate and isovalerate were significantly higher in responder-receiver mice.
Colonic bacteria also ferment nondigestible carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids SCFAs. The fetal intestine is sterile.The severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with gut dysbiosis and shift in the metabolic function of the gut microbiota.
Hepatology. ;– Hepatology. ;–Cited by: 3. Gut Microbiota Proﬁling of Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Obese Patients Unveiled by an Integrated Meta-omics-Based Approach Federica Del Chierico,1* Valerio Nobili,2,3* Pamela Vernocchi, 1Alessandra Russo, Cristiano De Stefanis, 3Daniela Gnani,Cited by: gut microbiota and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD is a multifactorial disease, the incidence of which is increasing, and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood.
Various genetic, metabolic, inflammatory and environmental factors are thought to contribute to its pathogenesis [ 10 ].Cited by: · This Review focuses on clinical studies involving the gut microbiota in patients with alcoholic liver disease across the spectrum from alcoholic fatty liver to cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis Cited by: 1.
Changes in gut microbiota due to supplemented fatty acids in diet-induced obese mice - Volume Issue 4 - Jorge R. Mujico, Gyselle C. Baccan, Alina Gheorghe, Ligia E. Díaz, Ascensión MarcosCited by: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the liver manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and thus evolves in the same context as these metabolic diseases.
It is therefore not surprising that recent literature emphasizes a potential role for gut dysbiosis in the pathophysiology of NAFLD.